He graduated with honours from the class of Stanisław Firlej at the Music Academy in Łódź and the Queen Sofía College of Music in Madrid, where he studied with Natalia Shakhovskaya (Mstislav Rostropovich used to visit her class). He continued his studies with such masters as Natalia Gutman, Frans Helmerson, Tsuyoshi Tsutsumi, Eleonore Schoenfeld, Joel Krosnick, Yo-Yo Ma, Boris Pergamenschikov, and others. He has recorded for Deutsche Grammophon, Sony Classical, Dux, Polskie Nagrania, and the Polish Radio.
His accolades includes Polityka weekly’s Passport award and the Fryderyk award, Special Award of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Eureka Award of the City of Łódź, and Gloria Artis Award of the Polish Ministry of Culture, 1st Prize winner at the Dezyderiusz Danczowski Competition, Yamaha Music Foundation of Europe Competition, Aleksander Tansman Competition in Łódź, Europhony Competition in Bucharest, prize winner at the Witold Lutosławski International Cello Competition in Warsaw and the Johannes Brahms International Competition in Portschach.
He has performed in many European countries as well as Russia and the United States, including at major concert halls such as Carnegie Hall, Paris’s Salle Pleyel, Madrid’s Auditorio Nacional, and Salzburg Music Festival.
In 1999, he participated in Krystian Zimerman’s recording of Chopin’s two piano concertos with Polish Festival Orchestra for Deutsche Grammophon, marking the 150th anniversary of the composer’s death.
He has played with artists such as Yaacov Bergman, Rafał Blechacz, Halina Czerny-Stefańska, Francesco d’Orazio, Agnieszka Duczmal, Kirill Gerstein, Dame Evelyn Glennie, Eugen Indjic, Gary Karr, Lorin Maazel, Jerzy Maksymiuk, Hansjörg Schellenberger, Maximiano Valdes, Radovan Vlatković, Krystian Zimerman, Beethoven Quartet, Silesian Quartet. He worked Luciano Berio, premiering his works at th Auditorio Nacional in Madrid in 2001. He has also appeared in the Cello Academy, an ensemble of twelve leading European cellists led by Hans Erik Deckert.
Currently, Dominik Połoński is assistant professor and teaches cello classes at the music academies of Łódź and Cracow. He also runs many international cello masterclasses. He regularly publishes in major Polish music magazines.
In the years 2003–7 Dominik Połoński struggled with brain cancer and lost the ability to move the left side of his body, including the left hand. He came back on the concert stage in 2009 and currently he is the only cellist in the world to play with his right hand only. The number of cello works composed for him is growing every year and now includes over 20 works with orchestra, piano, and for solo cello dedicated to Dominik Połoński.